The director also sought to keep the musical number performed by Timberlake, based on "All These Things That I've Done" by The Killers which he felt was the heart and soul of the film. Southland Tales is a 2006 science fiction comedy thrillerwritten and directed by Richard Kelly. This release will include both the original Theatrical cut and the controversial Cannes cut. Amongst the songs not available on the soundtrack but featured in the film are Muse's "Blackout", The Killers' "All These Things That I've Done", and Blur's "Tender". The site's consensus states: "Southland Tales, while offering an intriguing vision of the future, remains frustratingly incoherent and unpolished. The film was released in the UK on December 7, 2007 exclusively to UK cinema chain Cineworld in a limited number of locations. [9] The idea of six graphic novels was later narrowed down to three. [21], Kelly edited the film down to the basic storylines of the characters portrayed by Scott, Gellar, and Johnson. Dick". Boxer Santaros is an action star who's stricken with amnesia. [41], J. Hoberman defended the film, yet again, in his review for the theatrical cut. Development Boxer Santaros. Directed by Richard Kelly. [27][28] After significant edits, the final version premiered at Fantastic Fest on September 22, 2007. [19], Many critics responded unfavorably to the film's long running time and sprawling nature. Kelly wrote Southland Tales shortly before the September 11 attacks. alternative fuel or the increasing obsession with celebrity and how celebrity now intertwines with politics". "Yes They Can! [citation needed]. "[33] A handful of the American and European critics, however, were more positive. "[16] Kelly said the film's biggest influences are Kiss Me Deadly, Pulp Fiction, Brazil, and Dr. Strangelove. Ambitious and arresting to the eye -- the gray palette serves the film well -- it's too bad that Southland Tales is also pretentious, chaotic, and tries too hard. [18] Much to his surprise, they loved it and wanted the film entered in competition for the Palme d'Or. Southland Tales, Kelly's long-delayed second film, makes sense as a vision of a world gone mad. There will be some dancing and singing, but it will be incorporated into the story in very logical scenarios as well as fantasy dream environments. Dwayne Johnson. Dr. Soberin Exx. Wallace Shawn Baron Von Westphalen. Beth Grant Cast. special effects technician. John Larroquette Cast. Effects, visual effects photographer: 360 degree plate (as Jay Johnson), visual effects executive producer: DigitalFilm Tree, I/O supervisor: DigitalFilm Tree (as Edvin Mehrabyan), digital artist: Gradient Effects / digital artist: LOOK! On 26 October 2020 Arrow Video announced a Remastered version approved by Richard Kelly will be released on Blu-ray on 21 January 2021. "[43], In a 2013 interview, Kelly said he considered this work as "the thing that I'm most proud of, and I feel like it's sort of the misunderstood child or the banished child. Southland Tales is a 2006 science fiction[6] comedy thriller[7] written and directed by Richard Kelly. Rated the #358 best film of 2006. The feature film comprises the final three parts of the experience. The film follows the criss-crossed destinies of Boxer Santaros, an action film actor stricken with amnesia; Krysta Now, a psychic ex-porn star in the midst of creating a reality TV show; and twin brothers Roland and Ronald Taverner, whose destinies become intertwined with that of all mankind. Richard Kelly's Southland Tales. Filming was slated to begin in July 2004, but after a year, it had not begun. His life intertwines with Krysta Now, an adult film star developing her own reality television project, and Ronald Taverner, a Hermosa Beach police officer who holds the key to a vast conspiracy. [37], Glenn Kenny, in his review for Premiere criticized the film's style, "Kelly's camera placement and framing are at best textbook and at worst calamitously mediocre. Roger Ebert described the Cannes screening as "The most disastrous since, yes, The Brown Bunny. The Region 1 DVD was released on March 18, 2008 in North America and the Region 2 release was on March 31, 2008 in the United Kingdom. Curtis Armstrong. Set in the futuristic landscape of Los Angeles on July 4, 2008, as it stands on the brink of social, economic and environmental disaster. "[36] On Metacritic, the film had a score of 44 out of 100, based on 26 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Southland Tales 2006 16+ 2h 18m Action & Adventure Director Richard Kelly's tale of doom and destruction mines post-Sept. 11 angst and paranoia as Los Angeles teeters on the verge of catastrophe. Zelda Rubinstein and Beth Grant portray Dr. Katarina Kuntzler and Dr. Inga Von Westphalen, members of the baron's entourage. Filming & Production Xan Brooks ... (Sarah Michelle Gellar), while the supporting cast includes Justin Timberlake as a dancing soldier and Wallace Shawn as a … In a recent New York Times profile, Richard Kelly talked about how the years since the release of his cult hit Donnie Darko have seen him growing increasingly politically engaged/enraged by the actions of the Bush administration. [23][24], The soundtrack for Southland Tales was released in stores and online on November 6, 2007. Southland Tales had a rough go of it. On September 8, 2008, it was announced that it would be one of the five films being released on Blu-ray on November 18, 2008. Los Angeles, 2008: The city stands on the brink of social, economic and environmental disaster. Two months before Southland Tales was released, he announced the launch of Darko Entertainment.[15]. Release Dates [12] Editorial changes were made to restructure the order of the film's scenes, including re-recording all of Timberlake's voice-over. The novels were written by Kelly and illustrated by Brett Weldele. Santaros is married to Madeline Frost Santaros. Cast Dwayne Johnson Seann William Scott Sarah Michelle Gellar Mandy Moore Will Sasso Jon Lovitz Beth Grant Jill Ritchie Justin Timberlake Bai Ling Lisa K. Wyatt Curtis Armstrong Todd Berger Rebekah Del Rio Nora Dunn Christopher Lambert John Larroquette Janeane Garofalo Abbey DiGregorio Cheri Oteri Amy Poehler Miranda Richardson Wallace Shawn Sab Shimono Kevin Smith Robert Benz Joe … Kelly sent the organizers of the 2006 Cannes Film Festival a rough cut of Southland Tales on DVD assuming that it would not be accepted. [29] The film was originally scheduled to be released in the United States on November 9, 2007 in partnership with Destination Films and Samuel Goldwyn Films,[30] but in eventually opened in limited release in California on November 14, 2007. Will Sasso plays Fortunio Balducci. Original music was provided by Moby. Filmed in 2005, it was produced on a reasonable budget of under 20 million and had a hip as hell cast including Dwayne Johnson, Seann William Scott, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Amy Poehler, Jon Lovitz, Kevin Smith, Mandy Moore and Wallace Shawn. "[39] David Edelstein's review in New York magazine criticized the film's writing, "Kelly aims high and must have shot off his own ear, which is the only way to account for the dialogue. Zelda Rubinstein Dr. Katarina Kuntzler. Let us know what you think in the comments below. After the attacks, Kelly revised the script. "[14], Kelly's breakthrough film, Donnie Darko, was released in the United States on October 26, 2001, the same day the PATRIOT Act was signed. [22], Southland Tales: Music from the Motion Picture is the original soundtrack of Richard Kelly's 2007 film Southland Tales. "[38] In her review for the Los Angeles Times, Carina Chocano wrote, "You get the sense that Kelly is too angry to really find any of it funny. Seann William Scott. Krysta Kapowski/Krysta Now. During a three-day heat wave just before a huge 4th of July celebration, an action star stricken with amnesia meets up with a porn star who is developing her own reality TV project, and a policeman who holds the key to a vast conspiracy. "[40], On the program Ebert & Roeper, Richard Roeper and guest critic Michael Phillips gave the film a negative review. However, its inventor Baron von Westphalen and his associates are hiding the fact that the generators alter the ocean's currents and cause the Earth to slow its rotation, and that the transmission of Fluid Karma to portable receivers (via quantum entanglement) is ripping holes in the fabric of space and time. The city stands on the brink of social, economic and environmental disaster. | Here, Southland Tales simply tells half of the important plot points through a narrator and various fictional shots from the internet. The PATRIOT Act has extended authority to a new agency known as US-IDent, which keeps constant surveillance on citizens—even to the extent of censoring the Internet and requiring fingerprints to access computers and bank accounts. Company Credits Cast. "In its willful, self-involved eccentricity, Southland Tales is really something else. In a 2011 interview, Justin Timberlake himself said, "To me, Southland Tales is performance art. While Roeper called the film "Two hours and twenty-four minutes of abstract crap," Phillips felt that "the film has a head on its shoulders despite the fact that it can't find any direction" but nevertheless gave the film a thumbs down. In March 2004, Kelly and Cherry Road Films began development of Southland Tales. ("Taverner" is the name of the main character in the same book and suffers identity problems of his own.) Happily, it never does, which allows you to share in his unabashed joy in filmmaking as well as in his fury about the times. Sarah Michelle Gellar Cast. Cast & Crew. However, he has stated several times that if Sony commissioned one (based on the sales of the current DVD), he would happily be involved in a "Director's Cut" DVD in the future with more special features and deleted scenes from the Cannes cut. Jill Ritchie Shoshana Kapowski/Shoshana Cox. The film was released on Region 4 DVD in Australia on April 30, 2008. A website was also developed to intertwine with the graphic novels and the film itself. In response to the recent fuel shortage in the wake of global warfare, the German company Treer designs a generator of inexhaustible energy, which is propelled by the perpetual motion of ocean currents, called "Fluid Karma". Official Sites Effects (as Jennifer Foster), digital systems administrator: LOOK! . | "[4], 2006 science fiction comedy thriller film, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, This Maligned 2006 Movie About Dystopian L.A. Is Too Real at This Point. – Amazon Commissions Earned – The 2006 Richard Kelly film “Southland Tales” will be officially getting a Limited Edition 2-Disc Blu-ray release from Arrow Video on January 26th, 2021.The film, previously released on the format back in 2008, will now feature a new 2K video restoration that was “approved by director Richard Kelly and director of photography Steven Poster.” He stopped editing the film and was also unable to complete all of the visual effects in time for the screening. It opened in Canada, as well as nationwide in the United States, in just 63 theaters,[5] on November 16, 2007. The reason for the exclusion of some of these tracks, like the song by The Killers was as a result of a dispute with the record label. | • Dwayne Johnson as Boxer Santaros / Jericho Cane, an amnesiac action star whose life crosses paths with Krysta Now. Southland Tales grossed $275,380 in limited release at the North American box office and $99,363 in Turkey and United Kingdom for a worldwide total of $374,743,[5] against a production budget of $17 million. They have been collected together into one single volume: The titles of the parts in the film are:[26], The film premiered May 21, 2006, at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival, where it was poorly received. Roland Taverner/Ronald Taverner. "[32] Jason Solomons, in The Observer (UK), said that "Southland Tales was so bad it made me wonder if [Kelly] had ever met a human being" and that ten minutes of the "sprawling, plotless, post-apocalyptic farrago" gave him the "sinking feeling that this may be one of the worst films ever presented in [Cannes] competition. Kelly's movie may not be entirely coherent, but that's because there's so much it wants to say. But now it's about, I hope, creating a piece of science fiction that's about a really important problem we're facing, about civil liberties and homeland security and needing to sustain both those things and balance them. Filmmakers entered negotiations with actors Seann William Scott, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Jason Lee, Janeane Garofalo, Tim Blake Nelson, Amy Poehler, Kevin Smith, and Ali Larter. Southland Tales. [20], Universal Studios had originally optioned the U.S. rights, but after the Cannes screening, it was sold to Sony, although Universal still retained some international rights. Sarah Michelle Gellar. Here are the steps to a successful production:. Kelly sought more financing to finish visual effects for the film, and he negotiated a deal with Sony to cut down on the film's length in exchange for funds to complete the visual effects. Interview with Justin Timberlake and Amanda Seyfried", Southland Tales: Music From The Motion Picture,, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with dead external links from September 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from March 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, Album articles lacking alt text for covers, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from June 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Wave of Mutilation" (UK surf version) by, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 22:41. Cast Dwayne Johnson Boxer Santaros Seann William Scott Roland Taverner/Ronald Taverner Sarah Michelle Gellar Krysta Kapowski/Krysta Now Curtis Armstrong Dr. Soberin Exx Joe Campana Brandt Huntington Nora Dunn Cyndi Pinziki Michele Durrett Starla Von Luft Beth Grant Dr. Inga Von Westphalen/Marion Card John Larroquette Vaughn Smallhouse Bai Ling Serpentine SOUTHLAND TALES is an epic story set over the course of three days that culminate in a massive 4th of July celebration. Southland Tales: The Prequel Saga collects writer/director Richard Kelly's (Donnie Darko) three graphic novels that set the stage to his second film, Southland Tales. The film features an ensemble cast including Dwayne Johnson, Seann William Scott, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Mandy Moore, and Justin Timberlake. It was his second film. Directed by: Richard Kelly. Starring: Dwayne Johnson, Seann William Scott, Sarah Michelle Gellar. Miranda Richardson Nana Mae Frost. But sadly, Southland Tales is a disjointed, muddled mess. [14] With the film's premise of a nuclear attack on Texas, Kelly wanted to take a look at how the United States would respond and survive while constructing a "great black comedy. "Kelly launches Darko Entertainment", by Dade Hayes, "How The World Ends: Conversation With Richard Kelly", "Exclusive Interview: Richard Kelly (Southland Tales)", Southland Tales - Music From The Motion Picture, "Apocalypse Soon: A Mushroom Cloud Doesn't Stall 2008 Electioneering". Kelly wrote them while making the film and found it very difficult as it pushed him "to the edge of my own sanity", as he remarked in an interview.[18]. [18] After the film's festival release, Southland Tales was purchased by Sony Pictures. "[28], The film remains enigmatic to many viewers and even some of its makers. I still don't know what that movie is about [laughs]. In near-future 2008, Los Angeles (referred to as "The Southland" by locals) is a dystopian[8] city on the brink of chaos overshadowed by the growth of an underground neo-Marxist organization. ... special effects crew (as Paul D. Miller) Jennifer M. Sheppard. Janeane Garofalo appears as General Teena MacArthur. He called it a "strange hybrid of the sensibilities of Andy Warhol and Philip K. Effects, cg supervisor: LOOK! Southland Tales 2006 16+ 2h 18m Action & Adventure Director Richard Kelly's tale of doom and destruction mines post-Sept. 11 angst and paranoia as Los Angeles teeters on the verge of catastrophe. In this article you will find the five crucial stages that every movie goes through before you see it on the big screen. Kelly has claimed on his MySpace blog that he had very little time for the DVD as he was starting shooting on his next feature, The Box. Financial analysis of Southland Tales (2007) including budget, domestic and international box office gross, DVD and Blu-ray sales reports, total earnings and profitability. Again, this does give off the feeling of being a bit rushed. Links to many post-Cannes reviews, including multiple positive reviews by American, French, Spanish, Polish, and other reviewers. Will Sasso Fortunio Balducci. [16] Kelly consciously sought out actors that he felt had been pigeonholed and wanted to showcase their "undiscovered talents."[14]. Dwayne Johnson joined the cast in April 2005, and principal photography was slated to begin August 1, 2005 in Los Angeles. [34] The Village Voice critic J. Hoberman, for example, called Southland Tales "a visionary film about the end of times" comparable in recent American film only to David Lynch's Mulholland Drive. Southland Tales is an epic story set over the course of three days that culminate in a massive 4th of July celebration. He said, "[The original script] was more about making fun of Hollywood. [35], As of June 2020[update], the film holds a 39% approval rating on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, based on 102 reviews with an average rating of 4.63 out of 10. A list of the cast and characters from the movie sourced from the wikipedia southland tales page, cast section. Amy Poehler and Wood Harris appear as Neo-Marxist activists. Sort by: Richard Kelly Director and Screenplay. Dwayne Johnson Cast. [18] Kelly's film premiered at the Cannes Film Festival in May 2006 with a length of 160 minutes. The film is an international co-production of the United States, Germany and France. Jon Lovitz plays violent police officer Bart Bookman, while Holmes Osborne plays conservative Senator Bobby Frost. [18], The track "Memory Gospel" was used from time to time by the CBC Radio One program Q in the background of an opening monologue given by host Jian Ghomeshi. [25], Southland Tales was initially planned to be a nine-part "interactive experience", with the first six parts published in six 100-page graphic novels that would be released in a six-month period up to the film's release. The Taverner twins are revealed to be the same person by the engineers of Treer, duplicated when Roland traveled through a rift in space-time, while Boxer has become the most wanted man in the world despite his political ties and his having the fate of the future, in the form of a prophetic screenplay foretelling the end of the world, in his hands. Kelly said: "[Southland Tales] will only be a musical in a post-modern sense of the word in that it is a hybrid of several genres. Southland Tales. | Cast Dwayne Johnson Seann William Scott Sarah Michelle Gellar Mandy Moore Will Sasso Jon Lovitz Beth Grant Jill Ritchie Justin Timberlake Bai Ling Lisa K. Wyatt Curtis Armstrong Todd Berger Rebekah Del Rio Nora Dunn Christopher Lambert John Larroquette Janeane Garofalo Abbey DiGregorio Cheri Oteri Amy Poehler Miranda Richardson Wallace Shawn Sab Shimono Kevin Smith Robert Benz Joe … It's easy to empathize with his position, not so easy to remain engrossed in a film that's occasionally inspired but ultimately manic and scattered. Wallace Shawn Cast. The director also added 90 new visual effects shots to the film and removed 20 to 25 minutes of footage from his initial cut. P. David Miller. The original script involved blackmail, a porn star, and two cops. Pilot Abilene (Justin Timberlake) quotes Biblical scripture from the Book of Revelation in narrating the film and allusion is made both to Robert Frost's The Road Not Taken, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening and an altered version of T. S. Eliot's The Hollow Men. [2] The title refers to the Southland, a name used by locals to refer to Southern California and the Greater Los Angeles area. Check out the official Southland Tales (2006) Trailer starring Dwayne Johnson! . [17] The film often references religious and literary works; a policeman says, "Flow my tears," in reference to a Philip K. Dick novel of that name. [19] Kelly describes the negative reaction at Cannes as a "very painful experience on a lot of levels" but ultimately felt that the film "was better off because of it". With Dwayne Johnson, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Seann William Scott, Carlos Amezcua. Southland Tales is an epic story set over the course of threedays that culminate in a massive 4th of July celebration. Read the Southland Tales movie synopsis, view the movie trailer, get cast and crew information, see movie photos, and more on But, if you can get over the many minus points, you'll find that Southland Tales is actually quite a novel story, told in a very slick and stylish way. But at some point, the madness got the better of Kelly. "[27] critic Andrew O'Hehir called the Cannes cut "about the biggest, ugliest mess I've ever seen. Effects (as Jennifer Yu), stunt player (as Alisa Hensley and as Alisa Lane), stunt double: Sarah Michelle Gellar (uncredited), key grip: second unit (as Craig D. Aines), first assistant camera: "b" camera (as Cheli Clayton Samaras), camera operator: second unit (as Ed Guttentag), best boy grip: second unit (as Bill Heath), camera operator: "b" camera / steadicam operator, director of photography: second unit (as Dave Stump), second assistant camera: second unit (as Joe Zovko), animator: "This is the Way The World Ends" (as Ryan Wick), extras casting associate (as Terrance Harris), digital laboratory project manager: LaserPacific, digital color timer: LaserPacific (as Dave Cole), digital film scanner: LaserPacific (as Dan Yang), digital intermediate producer (uncredited), digital data manager: LaserPacific (uncredited), digital asset manager: LaserPacific (uncredited), location manager: second unit (as Matthew R. Cassell), key assistant location manager (as Judy Heinzen), key assistant location manager: second unit, transportation dispatcher (as Karen Chang), driver: production van (as Raymond L. Appel), driver: production van (as J. Larry Michael), production staff: Abilene, Bopopolis Bros. Film Factory, additional set production assistant (as Victoria Coloruno), assistant: Ms. Weintraub (as Angela Goodwin Minuty), first assistant accountant (as Jim Gowdy), post-production accountant: Film Auditors, completion guarantor: Film Finances, Inc. (as Paula Manzanedo-Schmit), additional set production assistant: Venice Beach (as R. Andre Miller), choreographer (as Marguerite Derricks) / choreographer. Set in the then-near future of 2008, the film is a portrait of Los Angeles, and a satiric commentary on the military–industrial complex and the infotainment industry. Richard Kelly’s “Southland Tales” is infamous both for its immense ambition and its disastrous reception. "[42] Manohla Dargis also gave the film a positive review in The New York Times, writing, "He doesn't make it easy to love his new film, which turns and twists and at times threatens to disappear down the rabbit hole of his obsessions. The only new special feature announced was an audio commentary by Kelly. Musician Moby was approached on composing and performing the film's score. Genres: Black Comedy, Dystopian, Science Fiction, Satire, Alternate History, Hyperlink Cinema, Postmodernism. On March 25, 2009, the R2 DVD was released in France. Effects (as Mark Driscoll), visual effects producer: LOOK! View Southland Tales (2007) photos, movie images, film stills and cast and crew photos on Fandango. Cast Updates - November 8, 2007. Technical Specs, See agents for this cast & crew on IMDbPro, associate producer (as Dr. Ernst Augustus Schneider), special makeup effects artist: Quantum Creation FX (uncredited), special makeup effects shop supervisor: Quantum Creation FX (uncredited), unit production manager (as Dara L. Weintraub), key second assistant director: second unit (as Steve Buhai), second second assistant director (as Mark Constance), second second assistant director (as Michael Gillis), construction coordinator (as Mark LaPresle), assistant to property master (as James Meehn), sound designer / supervising sound editor, supervising adr editor (as Robert C. Jackson) / supervising dialogue editor (as Robert C. Jackson), sound mix engineer (as Michael Morongell), special effects technician (as Jennifer Shepard), lab technician: Quantum Creation FX (uncredited), compositing supervisor: Gradient Effects / visual effects compositor: DigitalFilm Tree / visual effects designer: DigitalFilm Tree / visual effects supervisor: DigitalFilm Tree, visual effects designer: "Doomsday Scenario Interface", digital artist: Gradient Effects (as Joseph Emil Brandibas Jr.), digital artist: LOOK Effects (as Kevin Browne), visual effects executive producer: LOOK! [9] Filming began on August 15, 2005, with a budget of around US$15–17 million. After I saw the first cut of Kelly's "Southland Tales" at Cannes 2005, I was dazed, confused, bewildered, bored, affronted and deafened by the boos all around me, at the most disastrous Cannes press screening since, yes, "The Brown Bunny." Graphitti Designs and View Askew in conjunction with Darko Entertainment are proud to present this special collection prior to the movie release. With a cast that includes Dwayne Johnson, Justin … The film features an ensemble cast including Dwayne Johnson, Seann William Scott, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Mandy Moore, and Justin Timberlake. [3][4], Along with two other American filmmakers (Sofia Coppola's Marie Antoinette and Richard Linklater's Fast Food Nation), Kelly's follow-up to Donnie Darko was in competition for the coveted Palme d'Or at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival[31] and was screened on May 21 at the Grand Lumiere Theater. ... special effects technician (as Jennifer Shepard) Ozzy Alvarez. Additionally, tracks from Radiohead, Louis Armstrong, Beethoven, Kris Kristofferson, and several tracks from Moby's Hotel:Ambient are likewise absent from the album. The basics of producing a movie. But, of course, ‘Southland Tales’ is one of those rare, impossible oddities that cinema would be poorer without. Effects (as Tefft Smith II) / digital artist: Gradient Effects (as Tefft Smith II), motion graphics designer: Gradient Effects (as Shane Paugh), visual effects supervisor: Gradient Effects, digital artist: LOOK! "[12] He described the film as a "tapestry of ideas all related to some of the biggest issues that I think we're facing right now . Seann William Scott Cast. Special features include a 33-minute documentary USIDent TV: Surveiling the Southland and a 10-minute animated short film This Is the Way the World Ends (which was not included on the R2 and R4 editions). On July 4th, 2005, in a fictionalized United States alternate history reality, two towns in Texas (El Paso and Abilene) were destroyed by twin nuclear attacks, killing thousands and triggering a catastrophe of unimaginable proportions, sending America into a state of anarchy and hysteria, as well as a Third World War (a fictionalized version of what the nation may have become under the War on Terror), with the US government re-introducing the draft. A large ensemble cast of characters includes Boxer Santaros, an action star stricken with amnesia; Krysta Now, an adult-film star developing The city stands on the brink of social, economic, and environmental disaster.