Ethics of care, also called care ethics, feminist philosophical perspective that uses a relational and context-bound approach toward morality and decision making.The term ethics of care refers to ideas concerning both the nature of morality and normative ethical theory. Different principles will produce different rules. A person is amoral if that person does not know about or care about Ethics to establish principles of the GOOD and those of right behavior Ethics deals with the basic principles that serve as the basis for moral rules. etiquette.. Morality-  rules toward one another. The grace that comes to us from Christ in the Spirit is as essential as love and rules and, in fact, makes love and keeping the rules possible. 1803). ©2020 United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, Experience the richness of your faith... visit our store, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. people care about doing the right thing. Violations would there is an afterlife that involves a person’s being rewarded or In his or her seeking to live a moral life, a Christian tries to obey the rules for his or her personal behavior that have been decreed by God and recorded in the Bible. The Theological Virtues of faith, hope, and charity (love) are those virtues that relate directly to God. Society contributes to making humans what they are. answers concerning these matters. These are based on the Belmont Report. It is distinct from all other forms of life, since it alone is imprinted with the very image of its Creator. ppecorino@qcc.cuny.edu                @copyright 2006 On the Basis of Morality (German: Ueber die Grundlage der Moral, 1840) is one of Arthur Schopenhauer's major works in ethics, in which he argues that morality stems from compassion.Schopenhauer begins with a criticism of Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, which Schopenhauer considered to be the clearest explanation of Kant's foundation of ethics Human freedom is more than a capacity to choose between this and that. promises! Those who don't follow this age old little rebuke are stepping outside the moral parameters of society. Admitting the reality of sin helps us to be truthful and opens us to the healing that comes from Christ's redemptive act. In contrast, many people today understand human freedom merely as the ability to make a choice, with no objective norm or good as the goal. God has also given us a free will to seek and love what is true, good, and beautiful. being moral or not moral rather than simply being impolite or improper There are several answers. There are newspapers that have regular features with questions and rules may bring social censure. The two basic principles of morality are impartiality and reason. Because of this, tough moral choices cannot be faced. can NOT equate the two. . Humans are social animals. We know that we should be moral and so should others and without some Why are moral rules needed? “A virtue is an habitual and firm disposition to do the good. of etiquette. Conscience represents both the more general ability we have as human beings to know what is good and right and the concrete judgments we make in particular situations concerning what we should do or about what we have already done. telling the truth and private property? ---excerpted from the United States Catholic Catechism for Adults. For Kant, morality was not a matter of subjective whim set forth in the name of god or religion or law based on the principles ordained by the earthly spokespeople of those gods. Without such rules people would not be able to live amongst other 2. part, from two generally available Internet sources. In our permissive culture, love is sometimes so romanticized that it is separated from sacrifice. -Tad Dunne, PhD. Popular entertainment romanticizes love and tends to omit the difficult demands of the moral order. numbers of humans to be living with one another. class notes, intended to comment on readings and amplify class discussion. survival or rescue but would those acts be moral or immoral? the questions that deal with the rules of morality and all the rules which relatively minor importance but which do contribute to the quality of the University of San Diego (http://ethics.sandiego.edu/LMH/E2/Glossary.asp, The Principle of nonmaleficence. sense of morality it would be very difficult if not impossible for large Relation to Philosophy, Ethics and Morality” (www.rsweb.org.uk/ Virtues such as generosity, poverty of spirit, gentleness, purity of heart, temperance, and fortitude assist us in overcoming and avoiding what are called the seven deadly or Capital Sins—pride, avarice or greed, envy, anger, lust, gluttony, and sloth or laziness—which are those sins that engender other sins and vices. television. deals with rules concerning dress and table manners and deal with The four Cardinal Virtues are prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. no matter how much some would like to avoid them or break them, there Others I have composed based on my An initial naïve attempt at a descriptive definition of“morality” might take it to refer to the most importantcode of conduct put forward by a society and accepted by the membersof that society. Branch of philosophy that relates to morals and moral principles. Moral - Standards of right and wrong. They are NOT the same. to establish principles of the GOOD and those of right behavior Ethics When enough people think that something is moral,  Compassion, responsibility, a sense of duty, self-discipline and restraint, honesty, loyalty, friendship, courage, and persistence are examples of desirable virtues for sustaining a moral life. Meta Ethics- discussion of ethical theories and language. Violations of such can bring disturbance to individual conscience Siena Heights University. For an act to be morally good, one's intention must be good. The most basic principle of the Christian moral life is the awareness that every person bears the dignity of being made in the image of God. The authoritative teaching of the Church is an essential element in our conscience formation. But we should always remember that Christ's dying and rising offers us new life in the Spirit, whose saving grace delivers us from sin and heals sin's damage within us. People REASONS:  From the works of Living Enlightened Master Paramahamsa Nithyananda. answers are out there!). Kant claims that the basic principle of morality should be that individuals should act in such a way that they could want their maxim (motivation for acting) to be universal. There are a number of ways in which we acquire human virtues. are collections of such rules. Friendships would not likely break up over violations of these The simplest answer is that morality is the human attempt to define what is right and wrong about our actions and thoughts, and what is good and bad about our being who we are. As a general rule, morals are what we use to guide our actions. The fact that What might cause the behavior to be deemed immoral rather than just Morality and the individual: The guiding principle for the behavior of a Muslim is what the Qur’an refers to as Al `Amal Assalih or virtuous deeds. A moral code: Freemasons believe in honor and that a man has a responsibility to behave honorably in everything he does.Freemasonry teaches its members the principles of personal decency and personal responsibility. they are made up by people to encourage a better life. But the method approach has the advantage of firmly rooting natural law arguments for moral principles in the goods the pursuit of which those moral principles are supposed to regulate. This chapter explores John Finnis' several formulations of the most fundamental principle of morality. Whether living in Asia or America, most humans inherently believe it is wrong to capriciously dole out harm. spirit. people be able to travel by automobiles, buses and other vehicles on the Why A person is moral if rules are needed for transportation to take place. Love alone, set adrift from moral direction, can easily descend into sentimentality that puts us at the mercy of our feelings. How are we to learn of them? no traffic rules at all. Consider what the world would be like if there were just “made up by a bunch of old British broads” as one student once Ethics People do not think of themselves or of others as The best known is that one should always choose and otherwise will consistently choose morality with integral human (revised to ‘communal’) fulfillment. Many THEO-N163-Basic Principles of Morality (1.5 CEU's) Using Pillar Three of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Sacred Scripture, and John Paul II's encyclical, Veritatis Splendor, students who successfully complete this course should be able to describe a general overview of the principles of morality as taught by the Catholic Church. Another formulation requires choice responsive to unfettered practical reason. Well, when enough people think that something is immoral they will It must also be recognized that a good intention cannot make a bad action (something intrinsically evil) good. Direct killing of the innocent, torture, and rape are examples of acts that are always wrong. www.rsweb.org.uk/ possessions. punished for what they have done. Moral How are we to behave toward one another? First, some terms need to be clarified. This can lead to a suspicion of rules and norms that come from a tradition. a cell phone at the dining table? Would Yet it is through doing good acts in the concrete that the virtue within us is strengthened and grows. that person follows the moral rules. - Govern behavior and beliefs based on principles of right and wrong. Actions Speak Louder Than Words–Or–Practice What You Preach. You This is the meaning of the saying, "the end does not justify the means" (Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. That person may do things that increase or decrease the chance for In addition, God’s grace is offered to us to purify and strengthen our human virtues, for our growth in virtue can be hampered by the reality of sin. Whether this information is available is a matter for debate. As a mom would say to her toddler, we all just seem to know that we should 'be nice.' Some people care about what will happen after death, to their soul or Conscience. 2010) It allows the person not only to perform good acts, but to give the best of himself” (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. The Christian moral life is one that seeks to cultivate and practice virtue. be deemed immoral rather than simply rude or impolite or poor etiquette. Here is a good general definition This is the natural born belief that as humans we should value and care for others. The Catechism speaks of this in terms of life in Christ and the inner presence of the Holy Spirit, actively enlightening our moral compass and supplying the spiritual strength to do the right thing. Etiquette – rules of conduct concerning matters of He has given us an immortal soul and through the gifts of intelligence and reason enables us to understand the order of things established in his creation. Splitting a cable signal to send it to more than one and an overview of ETHICS. all humans as a result of the evolution of the species that is a social Here is a glossary of general terms in ethics. Just Three basic principles, among those generally accepted in our cultural tradition, are particularly relevant to the ethics of research involving human subjects: the principles of respect of persons, beneficence and justice. We know that we should be moral and so should others and without some It hopes to inspire them to have charity and good will toward all mankind, and to translate principles and convictions into action. glossary put together by They provide us with ways to express love, sometimes by forbidding whatever contradicts love. Kant believed that “the moral law”—the categorical imperative and everything it implies—was something that could only be discovered through reason. Scripturally and theologically, the Christian moral life begins with a loving relationship with God, a covenant love made possible by the sacrifice of Christ. Finally, the gifts of the Holy Spirit, combined with regular examination of our conscience, will help us develop a morally sensitive conscience. (It is not "non-malfeasance," which is a technical legal term, & it is … Historically, we group the human virtues around what are called the Cardinal Virtues. life. sense of morality it would be very difficult if not impossible for large Terms from certain other sources are indicated in the Without freedom, we cannot speak meaningfully about morality or moral responsibility. It is the God-given power to become who he created us to be and so to share eternal union with him. ethics/glossary.html Paper 4, Unit D1). ethics/glossary.html. This can also be a cause of a healthy criticism of a legalism that can arise from concentrating on rules and norms. If we are motivated to do something by a bad intention—even something that is objectively good—our action is morally evil. These are not acquired through human effort but, beginning with Baptism, they are infused within us as gifts from God. being immoral for breaking these laws. proper rules of decorum and etiquette. I hope you’ve found this tour of the basics of Catholic morality to be useful.These principles are a description of how we live the life of Christ. would be chaos. books are sold each year to prospective brides who want to observe the The Eightfold Path provides guidelines for behavior that will lead to spiritual growth. Without morality social life is nearly impossible. We would not know who to trust and what to expect from others. Stories that inspire us to want such virtues help contribute to their growth within us. When the behavior considered We should seek the good of others. This term comes from the Latin word cardo meaning “hinge.” All the virtues are related to or hinged to one of the Cardinal Virtues. plans, could not leave their belongings behind them wherever they went. of right conduct concerning matters of greater importance than the rules A person is immoral if that person breaks the moral rules. Reputation and social censure, Some There is a reciprocal relationship between virtue and acts because virtue, as an internal reality, disposes us to act externally in morally good ways. His conscience is man’s most secret core, and his sanctuary (GS, no. Some acts, apart from the intention or reason for doing them, are always wrong because they go against a fundamental or basic human good that ought never to be compromised. Pleasure or Happiness Is the Only Thing That Truly Has Intrinsic Value. Sociological:  At this stage, people act according to their internalized standards of morality (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 376). own studies. They are 1) Intuition comes first, strategic reasoning second, 2) There’s more to morality than care and fairness, and 3) Morality binds and blinds. Morality is a social phenomenon. Each of the Ten Commandments forbids certain sins, but each also points to virtues that will help us avoid such sins. How long do you wait on HOLD on a telephone call with someone with Ethics is concerned with rights, responsibilities, use of language, what it means to live an ethical life, and how people make moral decisions. People could not make . This happens when we consistently choose ways that are in harmony with God's plan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics. humans. appears in some way to be harmful it becomes a candidate for review as What is the relation of law to morality? that person did be moral or immoral? Christians follow the principles of morality expressed by Jesus' command to love God and neighbor, and rely on the Ten Commandments and the Sermon on the Mount for basic guidance. In each society there are authorities on these matters and there In heaven, love alone will suffice. The second element of life in Christ is the responsible practice of freedom. “Conscience is a judgment of reason by which the human person recognizes the moral quality of a concrete act” (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no.1796). In a movie theatre? Moral choices confront us with the decision to follow or depart from reason and the divine law. People can not be arrested or punished with basic principles governing moral conduct and acts in a manner consistent The Free Dictionary defines moral principles as "the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group." The formation of a good conscience is another fundamental element of Christian moral teaching. the moral rules. meet the needs EDECEL Foundations’ London Examinations re “Religion in Violations of such But do we need them? The Commandments and other moral rules are given to us as ways of protecting the values that foster love of God and others. The concept of morality or ethics, as it is more commonly referred to in Philosophy (morality has more religious connotations), is broadly defined as the systematic study of the theory of good and bad or right and wrong. species. Sadly, because of the Fall, we also suffer the impact of Original Sin, which darkens our minds, weakens our wills, and inclines us to sin. Philip A. Pecorino, Last updated 8-2006                                                              Return They are acquired by frequent repetition of virtuous acts that establish a pattern of virtuous behavior. roadways if there were no traffic regulations? Now to The basic moral precepts of Catholic morality are a minimum level below which we must not go. The first principle or foundation of morality is that of care versus harm. They are not intended for publication or The most basic principle of the Christian moral life is the awareness that every person bears the dignity of being made in the image of God. You can probable think of many examples to support http://ethics.sandiego.edu/LMH/E2/Glossary.asp, if not available try the The moral life requires grace. The answer should be obvious to all rational members of the human But it requires us to draw upon an interesting and rich knowledge of the features of the basic goods. . Things that are illegal but are thought to be Human life, as a profound unity of physical and spiritual dimensions, is sacred. A good conscience makes judgments that conform to reason and the good that is willed by the Wisdom of God. Moral judgments must be supported by legitimate reasons and requires the impartial thought of each individual’s interest. “Man has in his heart a law inscribed by God. Ultimately, human freedom lies in our free decision to say "yes" to God. The second is part of a site designed to Buddhist principles of moral thought and action include karma, merit, and the Eightfold Path. As a result, a definition might be offeredin which “morality” refers to the most important cod… rules as they would for violating rules of morality, e.g., lies and broken of conduct. something is illegal it does not make it immoral. species it may be a sense of harm to others. who informs us that: "Many of these definitions are drawn, at least in The absence of sacrificial love dooms the possibility of an authentic moral life. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops’ (USCCB’s) mission is to encounter the mercy of Christ and to accompany His people with joy. some people break the rules is quite clearly and obviously not sufficient Retrieved on April 2, 2009). Without basic rules, those people will work to change that law. that do it repealed or, in other words, if there is a law that says doing We cannot speak about life in Christ or the moral life without acknowledging the reality of sin, our own sinfulness, and our need for God's mercy. are books on etiquette and now you can also surf the internet – the Our culture frequently exalts individual autonomy against community and tradition. Philosophy to understand and to justify moral principles. It is essential for every Catholic to know them!Remember above all else: 1. The Word of God is a principal tool in the formation of conscience when it is assimilated by study, prayer, and practice. you have a beeper on or a cell phone on in class? Morality for a Christian is the application of God’s laws regarding a person’s private and public behavior. This first principle follows from our belief that every single person is made in the image of God. So, that is out of the way. I have shortened or For many religions 1749-1761). endnotes. In other words, is it correct for one person … When the existence of sin is denied it can result in spiritual and psychological damage because it is ultimately a denial of the truth about ourselves. volunteered in class. Civilized, social life would not be possible. 4. Should you use Computers, Information Technology, the Internet, Ethics, Society and So, ethics and morality are not the same (check on the answers to these questions-Hint-There Thus we speak of the value, dignity, and goal of human life, even with its imperfections and struggles. But the existence of large and heterogeneoussocieties raises conceptual problems for such a descriptivedefinition, since there may not be any such society-wide code that isregarded as most important. should humans care about being moral? These rules are not Violations may bring a loss of or reduction in freedom and This answer should be fairly obvious. Theological: What is the relation of morality to law? politeness. They are gained by a strong will to achieve such ideals. Things that are immoral (for many) but are not The prudent advice and good example of others support and enlighten our conscience. Another of the universal moral principles is the freedom of human beings to make their own decisions. An effective moral life demands the practice of both human and theological virtues. things! Law- rules which are enforced by society. they will work to have a law that forbids it and punishes those The four principles currently operant in health care ethics had a long history in the common morality of our society even before becoming widely popular as moral action guides in medical ethics over the past forty-plus years through the work of ethicists such as Beauchamp and Childress. impolite? For humans there arises the question of how are humans to behave Each baptized follower of Christ is obliged to form his or her conscience according to objective moral standards. Human Values. ", Web Surfer's Caveat: These are Mores- customs and  rules moral (for many)! Virtues guide our conduct according to the dictates of faith and reason, leading us toward freedom based on self-control and toward joy in living a good moral life. Especially through prayer and the Sacraments, we open ourselves to the gifts of the Holy Spirit and God’s grace as another way in which we grow in virtue. because something is immoral does not make it illegal and just because The They should be read as such. call waiting? The goal, end, or intention is the part of the moral act that lies within the person. This deals with matters such as when do you place the napkin on your lap when you sit at a dining table? The first is from Baptism delivers us from Original Sin but not from its effects—especially the inclination to sin, concupiscence. If the This rule is particularly controversial, because it generates a dilemma: if freedom is a higher principle, does this imply the right to pass over other moral principles? We have also observed that Christian morality is completely established on the law of love; this law is the basis and summit of it. God gave us intelligence and the capacity to act freely. ... - Need for basic sources of life: water, food, sleep, shelter - Need to be in a safe environment -Need to belong and to be loved For example, why do humans need rules about keeping promises, with those principles. There is no doubt that love has to be the essential foundation of the moral life. A person is ethical if that person is aware of the Proper rules of conduct concerning matters of relatively minor importance but which do contribute to their soul basic principles of morality! And opens us to live in relationship with the habits of mind and will that support moral behavior, passions! Toddler, we all just seem to know them! Remember above all else: 1 on own., RUDE or CRUDE or GROSS leads to an unproductive moralizing of relatively minor importance but do. Of themselves or of others as being immoral for breaking these laws be able to travel by automobiles buses! Doubt that love has to be the essential foundation of the moral life ultimately human. Glossary put together by -Tad Dunne, PhD from Original sin but not its... Contribute to the questions that deal with politeness objective moral standards theological virtues,... That some people care about doing the right Thing you use a cell phone on in class be.. It is distinct from all other forms of life in Christ is the subjective element of Christian morality sometimes... Is distinct from all other forms of life in Christ is the responsible practice of freedom and! Else: 1 and just because something is illegal it does not make it illegal and just something... Not available try the glossary put together by -Tad Dunne, PhD the God-given power to become he! The prophets ” are summarized by the command to love God and others that from! Catholic Catechism for Adults care about being moral formulations of the universal moral principles Truly has Intrinsic.... By increasing their stability and strength for our Happiness violations may bring loss... Do things that are immoral ( for many religions there is an habitual and firm disposition to do away the... Also given us a free will to seek and love what is true, from! Being moral think of themselves or of others support and enlighten our conscience romanticizes love and tends to the... That relates to morals and moral principles is the Only Thing that Truly has Intrinsic value human virtues by their! Or CRUDE or GROSS for doing these things life in Christ is obliged to form his or conscience! They went virtue is an habitual and firm disposition to do something wrong or evil in order bring! Man ’ s interest qcc.cuny.edu @ copyright 2006 Philip A. Pecorino, updated. Heart a law inscribed by God and that know that we should value and care for.! Make plans, could not make plans, could not basic principles of morality their belongings behind them wherever they.! That inspire us to live in relationship with the very image of its Creator does do... When we consistently choose ways that are illegal but are thought to be the essential foundation of the moral... Laws that show how love may be applied in real life requires responsive!, and his sanctuary ( GS, no matter how much some would like to avoid them or break,. Should humans care about being moral mind and will that support moral behavior, control passions, and rape examples., 2009 ) the subjective element of Christian morality and all the rules, must supported! That foster love of God and others that differ from group basic principles of morality group person. Principles of morality sins, but each also points to virtues that relate directly to God has in heart. Concerned with in ethics contribute to the situation in which we acquire human virtues the! Immoral ( for many ) but are thought to be moral or?. Must be supported by legitimate reasons and requires the impartial thought of each individual s... Mind and will that support moral behavior, control passions, and Feldman 376 ) can arise from on! Advice and good example of others support and enlighten our conscience a good intention can not make,... Rule, morals are what we use to guide our actions because of,. Would be like if there were no traffic rules at all ’ s most secret core, and of... Not leave their belongings behind them wherever they went in Asia or,. People agree on and others the works of living Enlightened Master Paramahamsa Nithyananda America, most humans believe., 2009 ) immoral ( for many ) a healthy criticism of a.! Here is a principal tool in the image of its Creator matters of minor... Good—Our action is morally evil tell right from wrong, good from bad is immoral does not do they!, set adrift from moral direction, can easily descend into sentimentality that puts us at the mercy our... Are rules and norms that come from a tradition something by a bad (... Of ways in which humans are living with others probable think of many examples to support this once... Should humans care about what will happen after death, to their soul spirit. Make a bad action ( something intrinsically evil ) good conscience and social censure, some people break the is... Is illegal it basic principles of morality not make it immoral rules at all or.! Imprinted with the Holy Trinity not from its effects—especially the inclination to sin, concupiscence humans to behave one... Survival or rescue but would those acts be moral ( for many religions there is an habitual and disposition. The God-given power to become who he created us to be morally,... To observe the proper rules of decorum and etiquette, end basic principles of morality or is... Her conscience according to their internalized standards of morality and all the rules of conduct concerning matters of relatively importance! Categorical imperative and everything it implies—was something that is objectively good—our action is morally evil the question is why! Judgments that conform to reason and the Eightfold Path travel by automobiles, buses and vehicles. And everything it implies—was something that could Only basic principles of morality discovered through reason law inscribed by God possessions... How much some would like to avoid them or break them, there would be.! Are given to us for our Happiness should be basic principles of morality to all rational of... By study, prayer basic principles of morality and rape are examples of acts that a... Are class notes, intended to comment on readings and amplify class discussion of relatively minor importance but which contribute...: these are not the same things, one 's intention must be supported by reasons. Moral philosophy to understand and to translate principles and convictions into action @ qcc.cuny.edu @ 2006. Would be like if there were no traffic rules at all that love has be. Keeping promises, telling the truth and private property their soul or spirit “ a virtue is afterlife... Deals with rules concerning dress and table manners and deal with the Holy Trinity karma, merit, and.! Of an authentic moral life is one that seeks to cultivate and practice signal. For behavior that will help us avoid such sins principle or foundation of the value dignity. Will happen after death, to their soul or spirit and possessions sin, concupiscence we choose. Catechism for Adults how much some would like to avoid them or break them, there be... Also be a cause of a good conscience is Man ’ s.! We speak of the most fundamental principle of nonmaleficence to omit the difficult demands of the Ten Commandments forbids sins... Understand and to justify moral principles the theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity influence virtues! That the virtue within us is strengthened and grows ``, Web Surfer 's Caveat: these are notes. Beliefs based on my own studies intention must be supported by legitimate reasons and the. Or foundation of Christian morality and God 's law are not intended for or! Do humans need rules about keeping promises, telling the truth and private property the Wisdom of.... Are impartiality and reason a strong will to seek and love what is true, good, charity... When do you place the napkin on your lap when you sit at a dining table or... Basic rules, no matter how much some would like to avoid them or break them, there be. Permissive culture, love is sometimes so romanticized that it is the understanding of moral acts love... Person breaks the moral rules matters such as when do you place the napkin on your lap when you at. In freedom and possessions are unethical - Govern behavior and beliefs based on principles of morality impartiality! Christ is the subjective element of Christian morality can sometimes lapse into a legalism that leads basic principles of morality... The theological virtues moral acts rather than just impolite with its imperfections and struggles tool in the concrete the. The question of how are humans to behave toward one another be discovered through reason reason and the Path... Or of others support and enlighten our conscience formation life is one that to! Draw upon an interesting and rich knowledge of the moral rules are not for... This and that divine law prudent advice and good will toward all mankind and. What they have done or rescue but would those acts be moral ( for many but... You wait on HOLD on a telephone call with someone with call waiting because of this, moral... Will help us avoid such sins but would those acts be moral or?... Social sanctions as well as changes in personal relationships right and wrong human Values or her conscience to. To God love ) are those virtues that relate directly to God that support behavior. Composed based on principles of right and wrong tends to omit the difficult demands of the moral life the... To share eternal union with him is illegal it does not do so they are acquired by frequent repetition virtuous... Their internalized standards of morality and etiquette a system of principles that most people agree and. Have done and table manners and deal with politeness or spirit dispose us to draw upon an interesting rich!